Marriage from origins to the present

Some situations that occur in modern family and personal relationships, and cause controversy and indignation among some of us, will become clearer and more understandable if we carefully consider and recognize the process of family formation in a historical aspect.

I was prompted to study the history of the family by the case of one of my patients, who, without embarrassment, took a second wife and settled her together with the first, referring to the fact that his act corresponds to the provisions in the book F Engels and the Manifesto of the Communist Party.

History is very important for us, without it it is difficult to understand the processes that are taking place in the present. For mankind, for many centuries it has been considered the norm - monogamous marriage, but in ancient times everything was different.

The development of mankind has several stages

The first stage is savagery, which in turn is divided into several stages. At the lowest stage, which lasted for several millennia, people did not yet cook food and lived naturally, in nature, collecting edible plants and nuts. Perhaps at this time speech begins to form.

During the middle stage, people open fire, create the first tools, start eating fish. They begin to live not just where they have to, but choose places near the river. At the highest level, tools become more complex, the first bow and arrows are created, with the help of which it becomes possible to hunt game.

The second stage is barbarism. It is also divided into steps. At the lowest level, people tame animals, grow plants, and also begin to engage in pottery. The middle stage is different in that people begin to build houses using stone and brick.

Grow plants for food and create an irrigation system to care for them. Herds are formed from domestic animals, people eat better thanks to milk food. And already at the highest level, humanity enters the path of civilization, which begins with the use of copper ore for the production of tools and the creation of writing.

The third stage is civilization, during which all already acquired skills are developed, production expands, art spreads.

But what about the family? It is a known fact that a herd is formed only where there is polygamy. Where there is a strong family, the appearance of a herd is extremely rare. The family is limited by the jealousy of the male, and it also separates the family from the herd. There is no jealousy in the herd, where all the males are tolerant of each other, so the existence of a large group is possible.

In such herds, the transition from animals to humanoids, and then to humans, took place. Therefore, thanks to polygamy, we became human beings and still exist. We can say that polygamy is part of our nature and it is naturally present in us, so it is pointless to fight it. It is much more useful to try to fit it into the existing framework of polygamy accepted in society.

Before creating a monogamous marriage, humanity went through a whole path of development and formation of the following types of families.

Group marriage

At first there was a group marriage, in which many men and women participated, belonging to each other. This form of relationship practically ruled out jealousy, and it was she who contributed to the formation of human society. This period of polygamy existed for a long time. According to F. Engels, jealousy appeared much later and was more social than biological.

Biological jealousy is more inherent in men, because offspring carry genes, which means they continue you and your family, so it is very important to be sure of a woman's fidelity. But in ancient times there was no understanding of the purity of offspring, they knew nothing about incest. No one was embarrassed by sexual relations between relatives, brothers and sisters, and even between parents and children.

From such unions, sickly children were born who did not live long. And only later, with the discovery of incest and the ban on blood relations, did they stop wasting time and money on nursing unviable children. But even with such free morals, couples were sometimes formed who, unconsciously for some time, were monogamous, lived together, worked.

The consanguineous family

The first step of the family was the consanguineous family, in which there were no relations between children and parents, but sexual relations between brothers and sisters were taken for granted. This type of family has long disappeared, but some of its elements can be found among the tribes of the natives of the Hawaiian Islands. Analogues of such relations are also found in modern society. A vivid example is family ritual celebrations and meetings. But usually, sex here does not reach the final stage due to moral principles or other circumstances.

All this is evidence that people have not been able to realize themselves professionally, and they use their energy for relations with relatives. If the spouses are really passionate about each other, then they have practically no need to attend such events.

Punual family

The next type of family is punal, in which marriage between brothers and sisters is prohibited. Such groups became more developed and stronger than the tribes with incest. In punaluan families, a woman may be the common wife of several men, but none of whom are her own brothers. And vice versa, a man can be the common husband of a number of women, and among them there are no his sisters.

Nowadays, this form can also manifest itself in the so-called "Swedish" families, so again - do not judge anyone, we all have one story. In group families, it is not always known who the father of the child is, since there are several husbands, but the mother is always known - therefore, the clan in those days began to be conducted along the maternal line - this is how the institution of the clan arose. All sisters with brothers and children, having one founding mother, made up the first clan.

Paired family

Within group families, couples could be formed who lived together for a long time, got used to each other and isolated themselves. This is how families were formed. Those families in which there was no incest gave healthier offspring and, accordingly, in the future such families and tribes became stronger than consanguineous groups. But at some point, the number of women decreased and they had to pay some kind of ransom in order to live with only one man.

The paired family appeared in the transitional period from savagery to barbarism, it still does not have its own economy and property. Also an important point - now one father appeared in the family, all the children were from one man who provided life and got food. In case of discord in the family and divorce, the boys remained with their father and in the family, and the girls, together with their mother, were excluded from it. This is how a patriarchal family appeared, in which the rights of a woman began to be infringed, she, along with her children, became the property of her husband.

Monogamous family

The emergence of a monogamous family from a steam room is the beginning of an era of civilization. The head of a monogamous family is a man who is the father of children, and his wife does not have the right to cheat on him. At the same time, the husband can cheat, have slaves, but the wife is humbled and does housework, not participating in public affairs. At this time, prostitution is widespread.

Monogamous families basically had an economic aspect - common property, which was more important than love, one might say - these were marriages of convenience. Gender inequality appears, men suppress women.

Freedom in sexual relations with the introduction of monogamous marriage did not disappear - prostitution was developed. Women, in turn, made lovers, and establishing the paternity of children born in marriage was based only on moral aspects.

Despite the form of marriage, people do not change, in marriage they remain the same as they were before him, therefore, over time, any marriage becomes like a calm cohabitation, called quiet family happiness.

When a marriage is arranged, it somehow takes the form of prostitution, much more often on the female side, the only difference is that a woman sells her body once and for all, falling into slavery. In modern times, very often in “decent” families, daughters are set up to look for a rich groom who will provide for her.